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Version: 0.6.0

Working with TypeScript

Interactions with Noir programs can also be performed in TypeScript, which can come in handy when writing tests or when working in TypeScript-based projects like Hardhat.

This guide is based on the noir-starter example. Please refer to it for an example implementation.


You may find unexpected errors working with some frameworks such as vite. This is due to the nature of wasm files and the way Noir uses web workers. As we figure it out, we suggest using Create React App, or Next.js for a quick start.


We're assuming you're using ES6 for both browser (for example with React), or nodejs.

Install Yarn or Node.js. Init a new project with npm init. Install Noir dependencies in your project by running:

npm i @noir-lang/[email protected] github:noir-lang/barretenberg#39a1547875f941ef6640217a42d8f34972425c97 @noir-lang/[email protected]

While Noir is in rapid development, some packages could interfere with others. For that reason, you should use these specified versions. Let us know if for some reason you need to use other ones.

As for the circuit, we will use the Standard Noir Example and place it in the src folder. Feel free to use any other, as long as you refactor the below examples accordingly.

This standard example is a program that multiplies input x with input y and returns the result:

// src/
fn main(x: u32, y: pub u32) -> pub u32 {
let z = x * y;

One valid scenario for proving could be x = 3, y = 4 and return = 12


We need some imports, for both the noir_wasm library (which will compile the circuit into wasm executables) and aztec_backend which is the actual proving backend we will be using.

We also need to tell the compiler where to find the .nr files, so we need to import initialiseResolver.

import initNoirWasm, { acir_read_bytes, compile } from '@noir-lang/noir_wasm';
import initialiseAztecBackend from '@noir-lang/aztec_backend';
import { initialiseResolver } from '@noir-lang/noir-source-resolver';


We'll go over the code line-by-line later:

export const compileCircuit = async () => {
await initNoirWasm();

return await fetch(new URL('../src/', import.meta.url))
.then(r => r.text())
.then(code => {
initialiseResolver((id: any) => {
return code;
.then(() => {
try {
const compiled_noir = compile({});
return compiled_noir;
} catch (e) {
console.log('Error while compiling:', e);
  1. First we're calling initNoirWasm. This is required on the browser only.
  2. We then pass an URL that points to our file, and call .then on it so we can get the actual text of the source code
  3. We call initialiseResolver returning the source code
  4. Finally, we can call the compile function

This function should return us the compiled circuit.


You can use as many files as you need, importing them as you would do with Nargo, and you don't need to set them up in the src folder. Just mind the following particularities about initialiseResolver:

  1. The compile function expects a file as an entry point. If you need another one, just pass it as a entry_point parameter to compile. Check the noir starter for an example on multiple files and a non-default entry point.
  2. initialiseResolver needs to be synchronous
  3. Different frameworks use different ways of fetching files. It's beyond the scope of this guide to explain why and how, but for reference, noir starter uses both Next.js and node.js for testing.

Quick tip: an easy way to deal with initialiseResolver is just to prepare a {fileName: "literally_the_code"} object beforehand


Noir compiles to two properties:

  1. The ACIR, which is the intermediate language used by backends such as Barretenberg
  2. The ABI, which tells you which inputs are to be read

Let's write a little function that gets us both, initializes the backend, and returns the ACIR as bytes:

export const getAcir = async () => {
const { circuit, abi } = await compileCircuit();
await initialiseAztecBackend();

let acir_bytes = new Uint8Array(Buffer.from(circuit, 'hex'));
return acir_read_bytes(acir_bytes);

Calling getAcir() now should return us the ACIR of the circuit, ready to be used in proofs.

Initializing Prover & Verifier

Prior to proving and verifying, the prover and verifier have to first be initialized by calling barretenberg's setup_generic_prover_and_verifier with your Noir program's ACIR:

let [prover, verifier] = await setup_generic_prover_and_verifier(acir);

This is probably a good time to store this prover and verifier into your state like React Context, Redux, or others.


The Noir program can then be executed and proved by calling barretenberg's create_proof function:

const proof = await create_proof(prover, acir, abi);

On the browser, this proof can fail as it requires heavy loads to be run on worker threads. Here's a quick example of a worker:

// worker.ts
onmessage = async event => {
try {
await initializeAztecBackend();
const { acir, input } =;
const [prover, verifier] = await setup_generic_prover_and_verifier(acir);
const proof = await create_proof(prover, acir, input);
} catch (er) {
} finally {

Which would be called like this, for example:

// index.ts
const worker = new Worker(new URL('./worker.ts', import.meta.url));
worker.onmessage = e => {
if ( instanceof Error) {
// oh no!
} else {
// yey!
worker.postMessage({ acir, input: { x: 3, y: 4 } });


The proof obtained can be verified by calling barretenberg's verify_proof function:

// 1_mul.ts
const verified = await verify_proof(verifier, proof);

The function should return true if the entire process is working as intended, which can be asserted if you are writing a test script:


Verifying with Smart Contract

Alternatively, a verifier smart contract can be generated and used for verifying Noir proofs in TypeScript as well.

This could be useful if the Noir program is designed to be decentrally verified and/or make use of decentralized states and logics that is handled at the smart contract level.

To generate the verifier smart contract using typescript:

// generator.ts
import { writeFileSync } from 'fs';

const sc = verifier.SmartContract();
syncWriteFile('../contracts/plonk_vk.sol', sc);

function syncWriteFile(filename: string, data: any) {
writeFileSync(join(__dirname, filename), data, {
flag: 'w',

You can then verify a Noir proof using the verifier contract, for example using Hardhat:

// verifier.ts
import { ethers } from 'hardhat';
import { Contract, ContractFactory, utils } from 'ethers';

let Verifier: ContractFactory;
let verifierContract: Contract;

before(async () => {
Verifier = await ethers.getContractFactory('TurboVerifier');
verifierContract = await Verifier.deploy();

// Verify proof
const sc_verified = await verifierContract.verify(proof);