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Generics allow you to use the same functions with multiple different concrete data types. You can read more about the concept of generics in the Rust documentation here.

Here is a trivial example showing the identity function that supports any type. In Rust, it is common to refer to the most general type as T. We follow the same convention in Noir.

fn id<T>(x: T) -> T  {

In Structs

Generics are useful for specifying types in structs. For example, we can specify that a field in a struct will be of a certain generic type. In this case value is of type T.

struct RepeatedValue<T> {
value: T,
count: Field,

impl<T> RepeatedValue<T> {
fn new(value: T) -> Self {
Self { value, count: 1 }

fn increment(mut repeated: Self) -> Self {
repeated.count += 1;

fn print(self) {
for _i in 0 .. self.count {

fn main() {
let mut repeated = RepeatedValue::new("Hello!");
repeated = repeated.increment();

The print function will print Hello! an arbitrary number of times, twice in this case.

If we want to be generic over array lengths (which are type-level integers), we can use numeric generics. Using these looks just like using regular generics, but these generics can resolve to integers at compile-time, rather than resolving to types. Here's an example of a struct that is generic over the size of the array it contains internally:

struct BigInt<N> {
limbs: [u32; N],

impl<N> BigInt<N> {
// `N` is in scope of all methods in the impl
fn first(first: BigInt<N>, second: BigInt<N>) -> Self {
assert(first.limbs != second.limbs);

fn second(first: BigInt<N>, second: Self) -> Self {
assert(first.limbs != second.limbs);

Calling functions on generic parameters

Unlike Rust, Noir does not have traits, so how can one translate the equivalent of a trait bound in Rust into Noir? That is, how can we write a function that is generic over some type T, while also requiring there is a function like eq: fn(T, T) -> bool that works on the type?

The answer is that we can translate this by passing in the function manually. Here's an example of implementing array equality in Noir:

fn array_eq<T, N>(array1: [T; N], array2: [T; N], elem_eq: fn(T, T) -> bool) -> bool {
if array1.len() != array2.len() {
} else {
let mut result = true;
for i in 0 .. array1.len() {
result &= elem_eq(array1[i], array2[i]);

fn main() {
assert(array_eq([1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3], |a, b| a == b));

// We can use array_eq even for arrays of structs, as long as we have
// an equality function for these structs we can pass in
let array = [MyStruct::new(), MyStruct::new()];
assert(array_eq(array, array, MyStruct::eq));

You can see an example of generics in the tests here.