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Version: v0.22.0

Generate a Solidity Verifier

For certain applications, it may be desirable to run the verifier as a smart contract instead of on a local machine.

Compile a Solidity verifier contract for your Noir program by running:

nargo codegen-verifier

A new contract folder would then be generated in your project directory, containing the Solidity file plonk_vk.sol. It can be deployed on any EVM blockchain acting as a verifier smart contract.

Note: It is possible to compile verifier contracts of Noir programs for other smart contract platforms as long as the proving backend supplies an implementation.

Barretenberg, the default proving backend for Nargo, supports compilation of verifier contracts in Solidity only for the time being.

Verify

To verify a proof using the Solidity verifier contract, call the verify function with the following signature:

function verify(bytes calldata _proof, bytes32[] calldata _publicInputs) external view returns (bool)

You can see an example of how the verify function is called in the example zk voting application here:

function castVote(bytes calldata proof, uint proposalId, uint vote, bytes32 nullifierHash) public returns (bool) {
// ...
bytes32[] memory publicInputs = new bytes32[](4);
publicInputs[0] = merkleRoot;
publicInputs[1] = bytes32(proposalId);
publicInputs[2] = bytes32(vote);
publicInputs[3] = nullifierHash;
require(verifier.verify(proof, publicInputs), "Invalid proof");

Public Inputs

tip

A circuit doesn't have the concept of a return value. Return values are just syntactic sugar in Noir.

Under the hood, the return value is passed as an input to the circuit and is checked at the end of the circuit program.

The verifier contract uses the output (return) value of a Noir program as a public input. So if you have the following function

fn main(
// Public inputs
pubkey_x: pub Field,
pubkey_y: pub Field,
// Private inputs
priv_key: Field,
) -> pub Field

then verify in plonk_vk.sol will expect 3 public inputs. Passing two inputs will result in an error like Reason: PUBLIC_INPUT_COUNT_INVALID(3, 2).

In this case the 3 inputs to verify would be ordered as [pubkey_x, pubkey_y, return].

Struct inputs

Consider the following program:

struct Type1 {
val1: Field,
val2: Field,
}

struct Nested {
t1: Type1,
is_true: bool,
}

fn main(x: pub Field, nested: pub Nested, y: pub Field) {
//...
}

Structs will be flattened so that the array of inputs is 1-dimensional array. The order of these inputs would be flattened to: [x, nested.t1.val1, nested.t1.val2, nested.is_true, y]

Noir for EVM chains

You can currently deploy the Solidity verifier contracts to most EVM compatible chains. EVM chains that have been tested and are known to work include:

  • Optimism
  • Arbitrum
  • Polygon PoS
  • Scroll
  • Celo
  • Taiko

Other EVM chains should work, but have not been tested directly by our team. If you test any other chains, please open a PR on this page to update the list. See this doc for more info about testing verifier contracts on different EVM chains.

Unsupported chains

Unfortunately not all "EVM" chains are supported.

zkSync and the Polygon zkEVM do not currently support proof verification via Solidity verifier contracts. They are missing the bn256 precompile contract that the verifier contract requires. Once these chains support this precompile, they may work.